
Method Summary
Modifier and TypeMethodDescriptionstatic boolean[]
arrayMask
(int n) Generates an "array mask" of a specified length, where an "array mask" is an array of boolean values of the same length as another array.static boolean[]
arrayMask
(int n, double p) Generates an "array mask" of a specified length, where an "array mask" is an array of boolean values of the same length as another array.static boolean[]
arrayMask
(int n, double p, RandomGenerator gen) Generates an "array mask" of a specified length, where an "array mask" is an array of boolean values of the same length as another array.static boolean[]
arrayMask
(int n, int k) Generates an "array mask" of a specified length and specified number of true values, where an "array mask" is an array of boolean values of the same length as another array.static boolean[]
arrayMask
(int n, int k, RandomGenerator gen) Generates an "array mask" of a specified length and specified number of true values, where an "array mask" is an array of boolean values of the same length as another array.static boolean[]
arrayMask
(int n, RandomGenerator gen) Generates an "array mask" of a specified length, where an "array mask" is an array of boolean values of the same length as another array.static int
nextBiasedInt
(int bound) Generates a random integer in the interval: [0, bound).static int
nextBiasedInt
(int origin, int bound) Generates a random integer in the interval: [origin, bound).static int
nextBiasedInt
(int origin, int bound, RandomGenerator gen) Generates a random integer in the interval: [origin, bound).static int
nextBiasedInt
(int bound, RandomGenerator gen) Generates a random integer in the interval: [0, bound).static int
nextInt
(int bound) Generates a random integer uniformly distributed in the interval: [0, bound).static int
nextInt
(int origin, int bound) Generates a random integer uniformly distributed in the interval: [origin, bound).static int
nextInt
(int origin, int bound, RandomGenerator gen) Generates a random integer uniformly distributed in the interval: [origin, bound).static int
nextInt
(int bound, RandomGenerator gen) Generates a random integer uniformly distributed in the interval: [0, bound).static IndexPair
nextIntPair
(int n) Generates a random sample of 2 integers, without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n).static int[]
nextIntPair
(int n, int[] result) Generates a random sample of 2 integers, without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n).static int[]
nextIntPair
(int n, int[] result, RandomGenerator gen) Generates a random sample of 2 integers, without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n).static IndexPair
nextIntPair
(int n, RandomGenerator gen) Generates a random sample of 2 integers, without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n).static IndexTriple
nextIntTriple
(int n) Generates a random sample of 3 integers, without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n).static int[]
nextIntTriple
(int n, int[] result) Generates a random sample of 3 integers, without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n).static int[]
nextIntTriple
(int n, int[] result, RandomGenerator gen) Generates a random sample of 3 integers, without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n).static IndexTriple
nextIntTriple
(int n, RandomGenerator gen) Generates a random sample of 3 integers, without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n).static IndexPair
nextSortedIntPair
(int n) Generates a random sample of 2 integers (i, j) without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n).static int[]
nextSortedIntPair
(int n, int[] result) Generates a random sample of 2 integers, without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n).static int[]
nextSortedIntPair
(int n, int[] result, RandomGenerator gen) Generates a random sample of 2 integers, without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n).static IndexPair
nextSortedIntPair
(int n, RandomGenerator gen) Generates a random sample of 2 integers (i, j) without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n).static IndexTriple
nextSortedIntTriple
(int n) Generates a random sample of 3 integers, without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n).static int[]
nextSortedIntTriple
(int n, int[] result) Generates a random sample of 3 integers, without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n).static int[]
nextSortedIntTriple
(int n, int[] result, RandomGenerator gen) Generates a random sample of 3 integers, without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n).static IndexTriple
nextSortedIntTriple
(int n, RandomGenerator gen) Generates a random sample of 3 integers, without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n).static IndexPair
nextSortedWindowedIntPair
(int n, int window) Generates a random sample of 2 integers (i, j) without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window, and sorted such that i is less than j.static int[]
nextSortedWindowedIntPair
(int n, int window, int[] result) Generates a random sample of 2 integers (i, j) without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window, and sorted such that i is less than j.static int[]
nextSortedWindowedIntPair
(int n, int window, int[] result, RandomGenerator gen) Generates a random sample of 2 integers (i, j) without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window, and sorted such that i is less than j.static IndexPair
nextSortedWindowedIntPair
(int n, int window, RandomGenerator gen) Generates a random sample of 2 integers (i, j) without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window, and sorted such that i is less than j.static IndexTriple
nextSortedWindowedIntTriple
(int n, int window) Generates a random sample of 3 integers, i, j, k without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window, and ik ≤ window, and kj ≤ window.static int[]
nextSortedWindowedIntTriple
(int n, int window, int[] result) Generates a random sample of 3 integers, i, j, k without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window, and ik ≤ window, and kj ≤ window.static int[]
nextSortedWindowedIntTriple
(int n, int window, int[] result, RandomGenerator gen) Generates a random sample of 3 integers, i, j, k without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window, and ik ≤ window, and kj ≤ window.static IndexTriple
nextSortedWindowedIntTriple
(int n, int window, RandomGenerator gen) Generates a random sample of 3 integers, i, j, k without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window, and ik ≤ window, and kj ≤ window.static IndexPair
nextWindowedIntPair
(int n, int window) Generates a random sample of 2 integers, i, j, without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window.static int[]
nextWindowedIntPair
(int n, int window, int[] result) Generates a random sample of 2 integers, i, j, without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window.static int[]
nextWindowedIntPair
(int n, int window, int[] result, RandomGenerator gen) Generates a random sample of 2 integers, i, j, without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window.static IndexPair
nextWindowedIntPair
(int n, int window, RandomGenerator gen) Generates a random sample of 2 integers, i, j, without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window.static IndexTriple
nextWindowedIntTriple
(int n, int window) Generates a random sample of 3 integers, i, j, k without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window, and ik ≤ window, and kj ≤ window.static int[]
nextWindowedIntTriple
(int n, int window, int[] result) Generates a random sample of 3 integers, i, j, k without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window, and ik ≤ window, and kj ≤ window.static int[]
nextWindowedIntTriple
(int n, int window, int[] result, RandomGenerator gen) Generates a random sample of 3 integers, i, j, k without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window, and ik ≤ window, and kj ≤ window.static IndexTriple
nextWindowedIntTriple
(int n, int window, RandomGenerator gen) Generates a random sample of 3 integers, i, j, k without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window, and ik ≤ window, and kj ≤ window.

Method Details

arrayMask
public static boolean[] arrayMask(int n) Generates an "array mask" of a specified length, where an "array mask" is an array of boolean values of the same length as another array. Each position in the result is equally likely true or false.Runtime: O(n).
This method uses ThreadLocalRandom as the source of randomness, and is thus safe, and efficient (i.e., nonblocking), for use with threads.
 Parameters:
n
 The length of the array mask. Returns:
 An array of n randomly generated boolean values.

arrayMask
Generates an "array mask" of a specified length, where an "array mask" is an array of boolean values of the same length as another array. Each position in the result is equally likely true or false.Runtime: O(n).
 Parameters:
n
 The length of the array mask.gen
 The source of randomness. Returns:
 An array of n randomly generated boolean values.

arrayMask
public static boolean[] arrayMask(int n, int k) Generates an "array mask" of a specified length and specified number of true values, where an "array mask" is an array of boolean values of the same length as another array.Runtime: O(min(n, k^{2})), and it uses O(min(k, nk)) random numbers.
This method uses ThreadLocalRandom as the pseudorandom number generator, and is thus safe, and efficient (i.e., nonblocking), for use with threads.
 Parameters:
n
 The length of the array mask.k
 The desired number of true values, which must be no greater than n. Returns:
 An array of n boolean values, exactly k of which are equal to true.

arrayMask
Generates an "array mask" of a specified length and specified number of true values, where an "array mask" is an array of boolean values of the same length as another array.Runtime: O(min(n, k^{2})), and it uses O(min(k, nk)) random numbers.
 Parameters:
n
 The length of the array mask.k
 The desired number of true values, which must be no greater than n.gen
 The source of randomness. Returns:
 An array of n boolean values, exactly k of which are equal to true.

arrayMask
public static boolean[] arrayMask(int n, double p) Generates an "array mask" of a specified length, where an "array mask" is an array of boolean values of the same length as another array.Runtime: O(n), and it uses O(n) random doubles.
This method uses ThreadLocalRandom as the pseudorandom number generator, and is thus safe, and efficient (i.e., nonblocking), for use with threads.
 Parameters:
n
 The length of the array mask.p
 The probability that an element of the result is true. Returns:
 An array of n boolean values, such that each element is true with probability p.

arrayMask
Generates an "array mask" of a specified length, where an "array mask" is an array of boolean values of the same length as another array.Runtime: O(n), and it uses O(n) random doubles.
 Parameters:
n
 The length of the array mask.p
 The probability that an element of the result is true.gen
 The source of randomness. Returns:
 An array of n boolean values, such that each element is true with probability p.

nextBiasedInt
public static int nextBiasedInt(int bound) Generates a random integer in the interval: [0, bound).This method uses ThreadLocalRandom as the pseudorandom number generator, and is thus safe, and efficient (i.e., nonblocking), for use with threads. However, it does not use ThreadLocalRandom.nextInt(int bound) method. Instead, our nextBiasedInt(int bound) method computes a random int in the target interval via a multiplication and a shift, rather than the more common mod. This method does not correct for bias via rejection sampling, and thus some values in the interval [0, bound) may be more likely than others. There is no bias for bound values that are powers of 2. Otherwise, the lower the value of bound, the less bias; and the higher the value of bound, the more bias. If your bound is relatively low, and if your application does not require strict uniformity, then this method is significantly faster than any approach that corrects for bias. We started with the algorithm proposed in the article: Daniel Lemire, "Fast Random Integer Generation in an Interval," ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation, 29(1), 2019. But we removed from it the rejection sampling portion.
 Parameters:
bound
 Upper bound, exclusive, on range of random integers (must be positive). Returns:
 a random integer between 0 (inclusive) and bound (exclusive).
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if the bound is not positive

nextBiasedInt
public static int nextBiasedInt(int origin, int bound) Generates a random integer in the interval: [origin, bound).This method uses ThreadLocalRandom as the pseudorandom number generator, and is thus safe, and efficient (i.e., nonblocking), for use with threads. However, it does not use ThreadLocalRandom.nextInt(int origin, int bound) method. Instead, our nextBiasedInt(int origin, int bound) method computes a random int in the target interval via a multiplication and a shift, rather than the more common mod. This method does not correct for bias via rejection sampling, and thus some values in the interval [origin, bound) may be more likely than others. There is no bias if the width of the interval is a power of 2. Otherwise, the smaller the interval, the less bias; and the larger the interval, the more bias. If your interval is relatively small, and if your application does not require strict uniformity, then this method is significantly faster than any approach that corrects for bias. We started with the algorithm proposed in the article: Daniel Lemire, "Fast Random Integer Generation in an Interval," ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation, 29(1), 2019. But we removed from it the rejection sampling portion.
 Parameters:
origin
 Lower bound, inclusive, on range of random integers.bound
 Upper bound, exclusive, on range of random integers (must be greater than origin). Returns:
 a random integer between origin (inclusive) and bound (exclusive).
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if the bound is not greater than the origin

nextBiasedInt
Generates a random integer in the interval: [origin, bound).This method does not use RandomGenerator.nextInt(int origin, int bound) method. Instead, our nextBiasedInt(int origin, int bound) method computes a random int in the target interval via a multiplication and a shift, rather than the more common mod. This method does not correct for bias via rejection sampling, and thus some values in the interval [origin, bound) may be more likely than others. There is no bias if the width of the interval is a power of 2. Otherwise, the smaller the interval, the less bias; and the larger the interval, the more bias. If your interval is relatively small, and if your application does not require strict uniformity, then this method is significantly faster than any approach that corrects for bias. We started with the algorithm proposed in the article: Daniel Lemire, "Fast Random Integer Generation in an Interval," ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation, 29(1), 2019. But we removed from it the rejection sampling portion.
 Parameters:
origin
 Lower bound, inclusive, on range of random integers.bound
 Upper bound, exclusive, on range of random integers (must be greater than origin).gen
 A source of randomness. Returns:
 a random integer between origin (inclusive) and bound (exclusive).
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if the bound is not greater than the origin

nextBiasedInt
Generates a random integer in the interval: [0, bound).This method does not use RandomGenerator.nextInt(int bound) method. Instead, our nextBiasedInt(int bound) method computes a random int in the target interval via a multiplication and a shift, rather than the more common mod. This method does not correct for bias via rejection sampling, and thus some values in the interval [0, bound) may be more likely than others. There is no bias for bound values that are powers of 2. Otherwise, the lower the value of bound, the less bias; and the higher the value of bound, the more bias. If your bound is relatively low, and if your application does not require strict uniformity, then this method is significantly faster than any approach that corrects for bias. We started with the algorithm proposed in the article: Daniel Lemire, "Fast Random Integer Generation in an Interval," ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation, 29(1), 2019. But we removed from it the rejection sampling portion.
 Parameters:
bound
 Upper bound, exclusive, on range of random integers (must be positive).gen
 A source of randomness. Returns:
 a random integer between 0 (inclusive) and bound (exclusive).
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if the bound is not positive

nextInt
public static int nextInt(int bound) Generates a random integer uniformly distributed in the interval: [0, bound).This method uses ThreadLocalRandom as the pseudorandom number generator, and is thus safe, and efficient (i.e., nonblocking), for use with threads. However, it does not use ThreadLocalRandom.nextInt(int bound) method. Instead, our nextInt(int bound) method is an implementation of the algorithm proposed in the article: Daniel Lemire, "Fast Random Integer Generation in an Interval," ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation, 29(1), 2019.
This method is significantly faster than ThreadLocalRandom.nextInt(int bound).
 Parameters:
bound
 Upper bound, exclusive, on range of random integers (must be positive). Returns:
 a random integer between 0 (inclusive) and bound (exclusive).
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if the bound is not positive

nextInt
public static int nextInt(int origin, int bound) Generates a random integer uniformly distributed in the interval: [origin, bound).This method uses ThreadLocalRandom as the pseudorandom number generator, and is thus safe, and efficient (i.e., nonblocking), for use with threads. However, it does not use ThreadLocalRandom.nextInt(int origin, int bound) method. Instead, our nextInt(int origin, int bound) method is an implementation of the algorithm proposed in the article: Daniel Lemire, "Fast Random Integer Generation in an Interval," ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation, 29(1), 2019.
This method is significantly faster than ThreadLocalRandom.nextInt(int bound).
 Parameters:
origin
 Lower bound, inclusive, on range of random integers.bound
 Upper bound, exclusive, on range of random integers (must be greater than origin). Returns:
 a random integer between origin (inclusive) and bound (exclusive).
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if the bound is not greater than origin

nextInt
Generates a random integer uniformly distributed in the interval: [origin, bound).This method uses a RandomGenerator passed as a parameter as the pseudorandom number generator. However, it does not use RandomGenerator.nextInt(int origin, int bound) method. Instead, our nextInt(int origin, int bound) method is an implementation of the algorithm proposed in the article: Daniel Lemire, "Fast Random Integer Generation in an Interval," ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation, 29(1), 2019.
 Parameters:
origin
 Lower bound, inclusive, on range of random integers.bound
 Upper bound, exclusive, on range of random integers (must be greater than origin).gen
 A source of randomness. Returns:
 a random integer between origin (inclusive) and bound (exclusive).
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if the bound is not greater than origin

nextInt
Generates a random integer uniformly distributed in the interval: [0, bound).This method uses a RandomGenerator passed as a parameter as the pseudorandom number generator. However, it does not use RandomGenerator.nextInt(int bound) method. Instead, our nextInt(int bound) method is an implementation of the algorithm proposed in the article: Daniel Lemire, "Fast Random Integer Generation in an Interval," ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation, 29(1), 2019.
 Parameters:
bound
 Upper bound, exclusive, on range of random integers (must be positive).gen
 A source of randomness. Returns:
 a random integer between 0 (inclusive) and bound (exclusive).
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if the bound is not positive

nextIntPair
public static int[] nextIntPair(int n, int[] result) Generates a random sample of 2 integers, without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n). All n choose 2 combinations are equally likely.The runtime of this method is O(1), and it uses an algorithm described in:
Vincent A. Cicirello. 2024. Algorithms for Generating Small Random Samples. Software: Practice and Experience, September 2024. doi:10.1002/spe.3379 [PDF]
This method uses ThreadLocalRandom as the pseudorandom number generator, and is thus safe, and efficient (i.e., nonblocking), for use with threads.
 Parameters:
n
 The number of integers to choose from.result
 An array to hold the pair that is generated. If result is null or if result.length is less than 2, then this method will construct an array for the result. Returns:
 An array containing the pair of randomly chosen integers from the interval [0, n).
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if n < 2.

nextIntPair
Generates a random sample of 2 integers, without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n). All n choose 2 combinations are equally likely.The runtime of this method is O(1), and it uses an algorithm described in:
Vincent A. Cicirello. 2024. Algorithms for Generating Small Random Samples. Software: Practice and Experience, September 2024. doi:10.1002/spe.3379 [PDF]
 Parameters:
n
 The number of integers to choose from.result
 An array to hold the pair that is generated. If result is null or if result.length is less than 2, then this method will construct an array for the result.gen
 Source of randomness. Returns:
 An array containing the pair of randomly chosen integers from the interval [0, n).
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if n < 2.

nextIntPair
Generates a random sample of 2 integers, without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n). All n choose 2 combinations are equally likely.The runtime of this method is O(1), and it uses an algorithm described in:
Vincent A. Cicirello. 2024. Algorithms for Generating Small Random Samples. Software: Practice and Experience, September 2024. doi:10.1002/spe.3379 [PDF]
This method uses ThreadLocalRandom as the pseudorandom number generator, and is thus safe, and efficient (i.e., nonblocking), for use with threads.
 Parameters:
n
 The number of integers to choose from. Returns:
 A pair of randomly chosen integers from the interval [0, n).
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if n < 2.

nextIntPair
Generates a random sample of 2 integers, without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n). All n choose 2 combinations are equally likely.The runtime of this method is O(1), and it uses an algorithm described in:
Vincent A. Cicirello. 2024. Algorithms for Generating Small Random Samples. Software: Practice and Experience, September 2024. doi:10.1002/spe.3379 [PDF]
 Parameters:
n
 The number of integers to choose from.gen
 Source of randomness. Returns:
 A pair of randomly chosen integers from the interval [0, n).
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if n < 2.

nextIntTriple
public static int[] nextIntTriple(int n, int[] result) Generates a random sample of 3 integers, without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n). All n choose 3 combinations are equally likely.The runtime of this method is O(1), and it uses an algorithm described in:
Vincent A. Cicirello. 2024. Algorithms for Generating Small Random Samples. Software: Practice and Experience, September 2024. doi:10.1002/spe.3379 [PDF]
This method uses ThreadLocalRandom as the pseudorandom number generator, and is thus safe, and efficient (i.e., nonblocking), for use with threads.
 Parameters:
n
 The number of integers to choose from.result
 An array to hold the pair that is generated. If result is null or if result.length is less than 3, then this method will construct an array for the result. Returns:
 An array containing the triple of randomly chosen integers from the interval [0, n).
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if n < 3.

nextIntTriple
Generates a random sample of 3 integers, without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n). All n choose 3 combinations are equally likely.The runtime of this method is O(1), and it uses an algorithm described in:
Vincent A. Cicirello. 2024. Algorithms for Generating Small Random Samples. Software: Practice and Experience, September 2024. doi:10.1002/spe.3379 [PDF]
 Parameters:
n
 The number of integers to choose from.result
 An array to hold the pair that is generated. If result is null or if result.length is less than 3, then this method will construct an array for the result.gen
 Source of randomness. Returns:
 An array containing the triple of randomly chosen integers from the interval [0, n).
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if n < 3.

nextIntTriple
Generates a random sample of 3 integers, without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n). All n choose 3 combinations are equally likely.The runtime of this method is O(1), and it uses an algorithm described in:
Vincent A. Cicirello. 2024. Algorithms for Generating Small Random Samples. Software: Practice and Experience, September 2024. doi:10.1002/spe.3379 [PDF]
This method uses ThreadLocalRandom as the pseudorandom number generator, and is thus safe, and efficient (i.e., nonblocking), for use with threads.
 Parameters:
n
 The number of integers to choose from. Returns:
 A triple of randomly chosen integers from the interval [0, n).
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if n < 3.

nextIntTriple
Generates a random sample of 3 integers, without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n). All n choose 3 combinations are equally likely.The runtime of this method is O(1), and it uses an algorithm described in:
Vincent A. Cicirello. 2024. Algorithms for Generating Small Random Samples. Software: Practice and Experience, September 2024. doi:10.1002/spe.3379 [PDF]
 Parameters:
n
 The number of integers to choose from.gen
 Source of randomness. Returns:
 A triple of randomly chosen integers from the interval [0, n).
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if n < 3.

nextSortedIntPair
public static int[] nextSortedIntPair(int n, int[] result) Generates a random sample of 2 integers, without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n). The integers in the pair are sorted with minimum first followed by maximum. All n choose 2 combinations are equally likely.The runtime of this method is O(1), and it uses an algorithm described in:
Vincent A. Cicirello. 2024. Algorithms for Generating Small Random Samples. Software: Practice and Experience, September 2024. doi:10.1002/spe.3379 [PDF]
This method uses ThreadLocalRandom as the pseudorandom number generator, and is thus safe, and efficient (i.e., nonblocking), for use with threads.
 Parameters:
n
 The number of integers to choose from.result
 An array to hold the pair that is generated. If result is null or if result.length is less than 2, then this method will construct an array for the result. Returns:
 An array containing the pair of randomly chosen integers from the interval [0, n).
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if n < 2.

nextSortedIntPair
Generates a random sample of 2 integers, without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n). The integers in the pair are sorted with minimum first followed by maximum. All n choose 2 combinations are equally likely.The runtime of this method is O(1), and it uses an algorithm described in:
Vincent A. Cicirello. 2024. Algorithms for Generating Small Random Samples. Software: Practice and Experience, September 2024. doi:10.1002/spe.3379 [PDF]
 Parameters:
n
 The number of integers to choose from.result
 An array to hold the pair that is generated. If result is null or if result.length is less than 2, then this method will construct an array for the result.gen
 Source of randomness. Returns:
 An array containing the pair of randomly chosen integers from the interval [0, n).
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if n < 2.

nextSortedIntPair
Generates a random sample of 2 integers (i, j) without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n). The integers in the pair are sorted with i equal to the minimum and j equal to the maximum. All n choose 2 combinations are equally likely.The runtime of this method is O(1), and it uses an algorithm described in:
Vincent A. Cicirello. 2024. Algorithms for Generating Small Random Samples. Software: Practice and Experience, September 2024. doi:10.1002/spe.3379 [PDF]
This method uses ThreadLocalRandom as the pseudorandom number generator, and is thus safe, and efficient (i.e., nonblocking), for use with threads.
 Parameters:
n
 The number of integers to choose from. Returns:
 A pair of randomly chosen integers from the interval [0, n).
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if n < 2.

nextSortedIntPair
Generates a random sample of 2 integers (i, j) without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n). The integers in the pair are sorted with i equal to the minimum and j equal to the maximum. All n choose 2 combinations are equally likely.The runtime of this method is O(1), and it uses an algorithm described in:
Vincent A. Cicirello. 2024. Algorithms for Generating Small Random Samples. Software: Practice and Experience, September 2024. doi:10.1002/spe.3379 [PDF]
 Parameters:
n
 The number of integers to choose from.gen
 Source of randomness. Returns:
 A pair of randomly chosen integers from the interval [0, n).
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if n < 2.

nextSortedIntTriple
public static int[] nextSortedIntTriple(int n, int[] result) Generates a random sample of 3 integers, without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n). All n choose 3 combinations are equally likely. The result is sorted in increasing order.The runtime of this method is O(1), and it uses an algorithm described in:
Vincent A. Cicirello. 2024. Algorithms for Generating Small Random Samples. Software: Practice and Experience, September 2024. doi:10.1002/spe.3379 [PDF]
This method uses ThreadLocalRandom as the pseudorandom number generator, and is thus safe, and efficient (i.e., nonblocking), for use with threads.
 Parameters:
n
 The number of integers to choose from.result
 An array to hold the pair that is generated. If result is null or if result.length is less than 3, then this method will construct an array for the result. Returns:
 An array containing the triple of randomly chosen integers from the interval [0, n).
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if n < 3.

nextSortedIntTriple
Generates a random sample of 3 integers, without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n). All n choose 3 combinations are equally likely. The result is sorted in increasing order.The runtime of this method is O(1), and it uses an algorithm described in:
Vincent A. Cicirello. 2024. Algorithms for Generating Small Random Samples. Software: Practice and Experience, September 2024. doi:10.1002/spe.3379 [PDF]
 Parameters:
n
 The number of integers to choose from.result
 An array to hold the pair that is generated. If result is null or if result.length is less than 3, then this method will construct an array for the result.gen
 The source of randomness. Returns:
 An array containing the triple of randomly chosen integers from the interval [0, n).
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if n < 3.

nextSortedIntTriple
Generates a random sample of 3 integers, without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n). All n choose 3 combinations are equally likely. The result is sorted in increasing order.The runtime of this method is O(1), and it uses an algorithm described in:
Vincent A. Cicirello. 2024. Algorithms for Generating Small Random Samples. Software: Practice and Experience, September 2024. doi:10.1002/spe.3379 [PDF]
This method uses ThreadLocalRandom as the pseudorandom number generator, and is thus safe, and efficient (i.e., nonblocking), for use with threads.
 Parameters:
n
 The number of integers to choose from. Returns:
 A triple of randomly chosen integers from the interval [0, n).
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if n < 3.

nextSortedIntTriple
Generates a random sample of 3 integers, without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n). All n choose 3 combinations are equally likely. The result is sorted in increasing order.The runtime of this method is O(1), and it uses an algorithm described in:
Vincent A. Cicirello. 2024. Algorithms for Generating Small Random Samples. Software: Practice and Experience, September 2024. doi:10.1002/spe.3379 [PDF]
 Parameters:
n
 The number of integers to choose from.gen
 The source of randomness. Returns:
 A triple of randomly chosen integers from the interval [0, n).
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if n < 3.

nextSortedWindowedIntPair
public static int[] nextSortedWindowedIntPair(int n, int window, int[] result) Generates a random sample of 2 integers (i, j) without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window, and sorted such that i is less than j. All pairs that satisfy the window constraint are equally likely.The runtime is O(1).
This method uses ThreadLocalRandom as the pseudorandom number generator, and is thus safe, and efficient (i.e., nonblocking), for use with threads.
 Parameters:
n
 The number of integers to choose from.window
 The maximum difference between the integers of the pair.result
 An array to hold the pair that is generated. If result is null or if result.length is less than 2, then this method will construct an array for the result. Returns:
 An array containing the pair of randomly chosen integers, i, j, from the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window.
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if window < 1 or n < 2.

nextSortedWindowedIntPair
Generates a random sample of 2 integers (i, j) without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window, and sorted such that i is less than j. All pairs that satisfy the window constraint are equally likely.The runtime is O(1).
 Parameters:
n
 The number of integers to choose from.window
 The maximum difference between the integers of the pair.result
 An array to hold the pair that is generated. If result is null or if result.length is less than 2, then this method will construct an array for the result.gen
 Source of randomness. Returns:
 An array containing the pair of randomly chosen integers, i, j, from the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window.
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if window < 1 or n < 2.

nextSortedWindowedIntPair
Generates a random sample of 2 integers (i, j) without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window, and sorted such that i is less than j. All pairs that satisfy the window constraint are equally likely.The runtime is O(1).
This method uses ThreadLocalRandom as the pseudorandom number generator, and is thus safe, and efficient (i.e., nonblocking), for use with threads.
 Parameters:
n
 The number of integers to choose from.window
 The maximum difference between the integers of the pair. Returns:
 A pair of randomly chosen integers, i, j, from the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window.
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if window < 1 or n < 2.

nextSortedWindowedIntPair
Generates a random sample of 2 integers (i, j) without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window, and sorted such that i is less than j. All pairs that satisfy the window constraint are equally likely.The runtime is O(1).
 Parameters:
n
 The number of integers to choose from.window
 The maximum difference between the integers of the pair.gen
 Source of randomness. Returns:
 A pair of randomly chosen integers, i, j, from the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window.
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if window < 1 or n < 2.

nextSortedWindowedIntTriple
public static int[] nextSortedWindowedIntTriple(int n, int window, int[] result) Generates a random sample of 3 integers, i, j, k without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window, and ik ≤ window, and kj ≤ window. All triples that satisfy the window constraint are equally likely. The result is sorted in increasing order.The runtime is O(1).
This method uses ThreadLocalRandom as the pseudorandom number generator, and is thus safe, and efficient (i.e., nonblocking), for use with threads.
 Parameters:
n
 The number of integers to choose from.window
 The maximum difference between the integers of the triple.result
 An array to hold the pair that is generated. If result is null or if result.length is less than 3, then this method will construct an array for the result. Returns:
 An array containing the triple of randomly chosen integers, i, j, k from the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window, and ik ≤ window, and kj ≤ window.
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if window < 2 or n < 3.

nextSortedWindowedIntTriple
public static int[] nextSortedWindowedIntTriple(int n, int window, int[] result, RandomGenerator gen) Generates a random sample of 3 integers, i, j, k without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window, and ik ≤ window, and kj ≤ window. All triples that satisfy the window constraint are equally likely. The result is sorted in increasing order.The runtime is O(1).
 Parameters:
n
 The number of integers to choose from.window
 The maximum difference between the integers of the triple.result
 An array to hold the pair that is generated. If result is null or if result.length is less than 3, then this method will construct an array for the result.gen
 The source of randomness. Returns:
 An array containing the triple of randomly chosen integers, i, j, k from the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window, and ik ≤ window, and kj ≤ window.
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if window < 2 or n < 3.

nextSortedWindowedIntTriple
Generates a random sample of 3 integers, i, j, k without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window, and ik ≤ window, and kj ≤ window. All triples that satisfy the window constraint are equally likely. The result is sorted in increasing order.The runtime is O(1).
This method uses ThreadLocalRandom as the pseudorandom number generator, and is thus safe, and efficient (i.e., nonblocking), for use with threads.
 Parameters:
n
 The number of integers to choose from.window
 The maximum difference between the integers of the triple. Returns:
 A triple of randomly chosen integers, i, j, k from the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window, and ik ≤ window, and kj ≤ window.
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if window < 2 or n < 3.

nextSortedWindowedIntTriple
Generates a random sample of 3 integers, i, j, k without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window, and ik ≤ window, and kj ≤ window. All triples that satisfy the window constraint are equally likely. The result is sorted in increasing order.The runtime is O(1).
 Parameters:
n
 The number of integers to choose from.window
 The maximum difference between the integers of the triple.gen
 The source of randomness. Returns:
 A triple of randomly chosen integers, i, j, k from the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window, and ik ≤ window, and kj ≤ window.
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if window < 2 or n < 3.

nextWindowedIntPair
public static int[] nextWindowedIntPair(int n, int window, int[] result) Generates a random sample of 2 integers, i, j, without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window. All pairs that satisfy the window constraint are equally likely.The runtime is O(1).
This method uses ThreadLocalRandom as the pseudorandom number generator, and is thus safe, and efficient (i.e., nonblocking), for use with threads.
 Parameters:
n
 The number of integers to choose from.window
 The maximum difference between the integers of the pair.result
 An array to hold the pair that is generated. If result is null or if result.length is less than 2, then this method will construct an array for the result. Returns:
 An array containing the pair of randomly chosen integers, i, j, from the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window.
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if window < 1 or n < 2.

nextWindowedIntPair
Generates a random sample of 2 integers, i, j, without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window. All pairs that satisfy the window constraint are equally likely.The runtime is O(1).
 Parameters:
n
 The number of integers to choose from.window
 The maximum difference between the integers of the pair.result
 An array to hold the pair that is generated. If result is null or if result.length is less than 2, then this method will construct an array for the result.gen
 Source of randomness. Returns:
 An array containing the pair of randomly chosen integers, i, j, from the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window.
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if window < 1 or n < 2.

nextWindowedIntPair
Generates a random sample of 2 integers, i, j, without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window. All pairs that satisfy the window constraint are equally likely.The runtime is O(1).
This method uses ThreadLocalRandom as the pseudorandom number generator, and is thus safe, and efficient (i.e., nonblocking), for use with threads.
 Parameters:
n
 The number of integers to choose from.window
 The maximum difference between the integers of the pair. Returns:
 A pair of randomly chosen integers, i, j, from the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window.
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if window < 1 or n < 2.

nextWindowedIntPair
Generates a random sample of 2 integers, i, j, without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window. All pairs that satisfy the window constraint are equally likely.The runtime is O(1).
 Parameters:
n
 The number of integers to choose from.window
 The maximum difference between the integers of the pair.gen
 Source of randomness. Returns:
 A pair of randomly chosen integers, i, j, from the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window.
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if window < 1 or n < 2.

nextWindowedIntTriple
public static int[] nextWindowedIntTriple(int n, int window, int[] result) Generates a random sample of 3 integers, i, j, k without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window, and ik ≤ window, and kj ≤ window. All triples that satisfy the window constraint are equally likely.The runtime is O(1).
This method uses ThreadLocalRandom as the pseudorandom number generator, and is thus safe, and efficient (i.e., nonblocking), for use with threads.
 Parameters:
n
 The number of integers to choose from.window
 The maximum difference between the integers of the triple.result
 An array to hold the pair that is generated. If result is null or if result.length is less than 3, then this method will construct an array for the result. Returns:
 An array containing the triple of randomly chosen integers, i, j, k from the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window, and ik ≤ window, and kj ≤ window.
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if window < 2 or n < 3.

nextWindowedIntTriple
Generates a random sample of 3 integers, i, j, k without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window, and ik ≤ window, and kj ≤ window. All triples that satisfy the window constraint are equally likely.The runtime is O(1).
 Parameters:
n
 The number of integers to choose from.window
 The maximum difference between the integers of the triple.result
 An array to hold the pair that is generated. If result is null or if result.length is less than 3, then this method will construct an array for the result.gen
 The source of randomness. Returns:
 An array containing the triple of randomly chosen integers, i, j, k from the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window, and ik ≤ window, and kj ≤ window.
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if window < 2 or n < 3.

nextWindowedIntTriple
Generates a random sample of 3 integers, i, j, k without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window, and ik ≤ window, and kj ≤ window. All triples that satisfy the window constraint are equally likely.The runtime is O(1).
This method uses ThreadLocalRandom as the pseudorandom number generator, and is thus safe, and efficient (i.e., nonblocking), for use with threads.
 Parameters:
n
 The number of integers to choose from.window
 The maximum difference between the integers of the triple. Returns:
 A triple of randomly chosen integers, i, j, k from the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window, and ik ≤ window, and kj ≤ window.
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if window < 2 or n < 3.

nextWindowedIntTriple
Generates a random sample of 3 integers, i, j, k without replacement, from the set of integers in the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window, and ik ≤ window, and kj ≤ window. All triples that satisfy the window constraint are equally likely.The runtime is O(1).
 Parameters:
n
 The number of integers to choose from.window
 The maximum difference between the integers of the triple.gen
 The source of randomness. Returns:
 A triple of randomly chosen integers, i, j, k from the interval [0, n), such that ij ≤ window, and ik ≤ window, and kj ≤ window.
 Throws:
IllegalArgumentException
 if window < 2 or n < 3.
